Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California, San Diego
Professorial Fellow, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne

Back to measures



Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (PANES)


The International Physical Activity Prevalence Study (IPS) developed an optional environmental module that can be used to assess the environmental factors for walking and bicycling in your neighborhoods. PANES is a short-form environment measure that uses single items instead of multi-item scales. Revised in 2002, it is for use in the IPS Study in addition to the IPAQ (short form).

Main Citations

Sallis, J.F., Kerr, J., Carlson, J.A., Norman, G.J., Saelens, B.E., Durant, N., and Ainsworth, B.E.  (2010).  Evaluating a brief self-report measure of neighborhood environments for physical activity research and surveillance: Physical activity neighborhood environment scale (PANES).  Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7, 533-540.

Bergman, P., Grjibovski, A.M., Hagstromer, M., Sallis, J.F., and Sjöström, M.  (2009).  The association between health enhancing physical activity and neighbourhood environment among Swedish adults: A population-based cross-sectional study.  International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6:8.  PMCID:  PMC2647520. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-8. Link  

Sallis, J.F., Bowles, H.R., Bauman, A., Ainsworth, B.E., Bull, F.C., Craig, C.L., Sjöström, M., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Lefevre, J., Matsudo, V., Matsudo, S., Macfarlane, D.J., Gomez, L.F., Inoue, S., Murase, N., Volbekiene, V., McLean, G., Carr, H., Heggebo, L.K., Tomten, H., and Bergman, P.  (2009).  Neighborhood environments and physical activity among adults in 11 countries.  American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36, 484-490. Link

Oyeyemi, A.L., Sallis, J.F., Oyeyemi, A.Y., DeBourdeadhuij, I., Amin, M.M., and Deforche, B. (2013).  Adaptation, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale in Nigeria (PANES-N). Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10, 1079-1090.

Adams, M.A., Frank, L.D., Schipperijn, J., Smith, G., Chapman, J., Christiansen, L.B., Coffee, N., Salvo, D., du Toit, L., Jan Dygrýn, J., Hino, A.A.F., Lai, P-C., Mavoa, S., Pinzón, J.D., Van de Weghe, N., Cerin, E., Davey, R., Macfarlane, D., Owen, N., and Sallis, J.F. (2014). International variation in neighborhood walkability, transit, and recreation environments using Geographic Information Systems: The IPEN Adult Study. International Journal of Health Geographics, 13:43. doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-13-43. Link

Ding, D., Adams, M.A., Sallis, J.F., Norman, G.J., Hovell, M.F., Chambers, C.D., Hofstetter, C.R., Bowles, H.R., Hagstromer, M., Craig, C.L., Gomez, L.F., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Macfarlane, D.J., Ainsworth, B.E., Bergman, P., Bull, F.C., Carr, H., Klasson-Heggebo, L., Inoue, S., Murase, N., Matsudo, S., Matsudo, V., McLean, G., Sjostrom, M., Tomten, H., Lefevre, J., Volbekiene, V., and Bauman, A.E. (2013). Perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity in 11 countries: Do associations differ by country?  International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10:57. Posted online May 14, 2013. Link



PANES: Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (also known as: IPS/IPAQ Environmental Survey Module, Self-Administered (original version)


The 17-item Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale can be used to assess the environmental factors for walking and bicycling in various neighborhoods. It is comprehensive but brief enough for use in multipurpose surveys.    

PANES Scoring


This document describes scoring approaches for the PANES.    

PANES, Japanese Translation


Translation by laboratory of Shigeru Inoue MD, PhD, Tokyo Medical University

Direct questions to inoue@tokyo-med.ac.jp

    PANES, Italian Translation

Translation by Centro Regionale di Documentazione per la Promozione della Salute.

Direct questions to elena.barbera@dors.it


PANES, Italian Instructions



Back to measures